FORTIFIED BULGARIA, PART 2

FORTIFIED BULGARIA, PART 2

Mon, 12/23/2019 - 09:21

How many fortresses are there in Bulgaria? It is hard to say, as almost every year newly discovered ruins are added to the list. Some of them even belong to historical periods during which archaeologists believed fortifications were nonexistent.

Vidin Fortress.jpg

Such examples are the fortification structures excavated at a salt-producing town near Provadiya and a fortified settlement now in Ticha Dam, near Shumen, both belonging to the 5th millennium BC. Archaeologists interpret these two sites as early evidence for a stratified society whose wealth and resources attracted incursions and invasions.

Discovering new fortifications sounds great, but most of the fortresses in the Bulgarian lands are in a condition that can excite only an archaeologist. Few have survived in a state fit for Instagrammable photos.

We introduced some of those in Vagabond's previous issue, now it is time to add other mighty ruins of forts built, abandoned, rebuilt and abandoned again from Antiquity to the Ottoman period.

Vidin Fortress

Bulgaria's only completely preserved citadel has a deep moat which could be filled with water from the Danube, massive walls and strong turrets. It stands on the site of an earlier Roman fortification, and in the 10-14th centuries was a major Bulgarian stronghold, becoming, in the second half of the 14th century, the capital of the Kingdom of Vidin.

Under the Ottomans, between the 15th and the 17th centuries, the fortress often came under attack by the Austrians, the Hungarians and the Wallachians, and was reconstructed according to the contemporary rules of fortification. By the 1880s, however, it had long become a shadow of its former self, and was used mainly as a prison. Still, the citadel fared well during the 1885-1886 Serb-Bulgarian war, when it was besieged by Serbian forces.

Vidin Fortress is also the subject of arguably Bulgaria's most feminist legend. It tells of three aristocratic sisters who built three fortresses in the region. The middle and the younger sisters were married to evil men who squandered their fortunes. The eldest one, Vida, never married, ruling happily in her stronghold and taking good care of her subjects. When she died, the castle was named after her.

Belogradchik Fortress

For visitors, the red Belogradchik Rocks are one of the most astonishing natural phenomena in Bulgaria. The Romans, however, had an eye for something completely different. The high rocks were the perfect place to build a fortification guarding the route from the Danube to the Aegean.

Belogradchik FortressA number of later rulers who controlled the area thought so too. In the 14th century, the Bulgarian lords of nearby Vidin rebuilt the fortress. The Ottomans were happy for centuries with this one, until the Serbian Uprising of 1804 (which eventually led to Serbia's independence). In 1805-1837, the Belogradchik Fortress was completely reconstructed by French and Italian engineers.

This is the layout tourists see today, with two bastions and a citadel, picturesquely huddled between the highest pinnacles of the Belogradchik Rocks.

Asenova Fort

Asenova FortLocated at the northern end of a route through the Rhodope Mountains connecting the Thracian Plain with the Aegean, Asenova Fort was built more on more than one occasion. The ancient Thracians were the first to fortify the cliffs where the River Chaya flows from the mountains, and later the Byzantines constructed a mighty castle, in the 9th century. The citadel became an important and much contested military outpost between Bulgaria and Byzantium. It was under the rule of Bulgarian King Ivan Asen II when it was completely rebuilt, in 1231, and promptly named after him. The fortress was abandoned in 1410, after the Ottomans established control of the region.

The only part of the fort to survive almost intact from the Middle Ages is St Petka Church. Now it is the most beautiful part of Asenova Fortress, together with the vista of the northern slopes of the Rhodope and the Thracian plain.

Matochina Fort

Matochina FortOne of the most spectacular Bulgarian fortresses is a mass of stone masonry rising among the hills of this no-man's land on the border with Turkey. The fortress, whose ancient name was probably Boukelon, has seen a lot; the fateful battles of Romans and Goths in 378, and of Bulgarians and the Holy Roman Empire in 1205, near Hadrianopolis (today Edirne), are only the two more famous events in a long list of local clashes.

Under the Ottomans the fortress was abandoned and gradually fell into disrepair. By the 17th century it was nothing more than a hunting ground for the sultans.

Under Communism, Matochina was completely off limits to anyone without a special permit because it sits right on the border with Turkey. It is accessible now and well worth a visit.

Mezek Fort

Mezek FortOn one of the last hills of the Eastern Rhodope near Svilengrad stands one of the best preserved mediaeval fortresses in Bulgaria. It was built at the turn of the 11th-12th centuries during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and saw much action in the 13th-14th centuries, when the region was hotly contested by Bulgarians, Byzantines, the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottomans. The walls were almost intact until 1900, when many of the stones were taken to Svilengrad and used to build military barracks.

The fortress was declared a site of historical importance as early as 1927, but this did not protect it from becoming an actual military site during the Cold War. A bunker was constructed at the tip of the fortification that overlooks the surrounding plain, because Svilengrad was on the border with NATO-members Turkey and Greece.


us4bg-logo-reversal.pngVibrant Communities: Spotlight on Bulgaria's Living Heritage is a series of articles, initiated by Vagabond Magazine and realised by the Free Speech Foundation, with the generous support of the America for Bulgaria Foundation, that aims to provide details and background of places, cultural entities, events, personalities and facts of life that are sometimes difficult to understand for the outsider in the Balkans. The ultimate aim is the preservation of Bulgaria's cultural heritage – including but not limited to archaeological, cultural and ethnic diversity. The statements and opinions expressed herein are solely those of the FSI and do not necessarily reflect the views of the America for Bulgaria Foundation or its affiliates.

Подкрепата за Фондация "Фрий спийч интернешънъл" е осигурена от Фондация "Америка за България". Изявленията и мненията, изразени тук, принадлежат единствено на ФСИ и не отразяват непременно вижданията на Фондация Америка за България или нейните партньори.


Issue 159-160 America for Bulgaria Foundation bulgaria fortresses Bulgarian history The Danube Natural phenomenon Roman heritage Ottoman heritage The Rhodope

Commenting on www.vagabond.bg

Vagabond Media Ltd requires you to submit a valid email to comment on www.vagabond.bg to secure that you are not a bot or a spammer. Learn more on how the company manages your personal information on our Privacy Policy. By filling the comment form you declare that you will not use www.vagabond.bg for the purpose of violating the laws of the Republic of Bulgaria. When commenting on www.vagabond.bg please observe some simple rules. You must avoid sexually explicit language and racist, vulgar, religiously intolerant or obscene comments aiming to insult Vagabond Media Ltd, other companies, countries, nationalities, confessions or authors of postings and/or other comments. Do not post spam. Write in English. Unsolicited commercial messages, obscene postings and personal attacks will be removed without notice. The comments will be moderated and may take some time to appear on www.vagabond.bg.

0 comments

Add new comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.

Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.

Discover More

Kardzhali Dam is a preferred spot for picnic, photos and some water fun
ALL AROUND KARDZHALI
When you have a long weekend ahead and the weather looks good for a trip, heading to Kardzhali is a great option.

veliko tarnovo fortress.jpg
(RE)BUILDING BULGARIA'S PAST
When Bulgaria joined the EU in 2007, the expectation was that membership would bring the struggling former Communist country closer to the more developed economies in Europe.

uzundzhovo church mosque gate
SILENCED FAIR EN ROUTE TO STAMBOUL
Notwithstanding online shopping, it is hard to imagine what the experience of purchasing goods from far and wide in a highly cosmopolitan society was like in pre-industrial times. A quiet village in southern Bulgaria offers some illumination.

gorge bulgaria mystic
WESTERN RHODOPE WONDERS
Bulgaria's most stunning caves and gorges, along with thick forests and sites to discover and explore: the Western Rhodope is one of the best places in Bulgaria for a summer escape for both dedicated hikers and chance travellers.

russian church bulgaria
FAIRYTALE CHURCH
When travelling near Kazanlak in the Valley of Roses (also known as the Valley of Thracian Kings), your attention will be drawn to three monuments on the slopes of the Stara Planina mountain range.

The monument at Petrova Niva area is the focal point of the August commemorations of the 1903 uprising
WHAT HAPPENED AT PETROVA NIVA?
Men dressed in early 20th century military uniforms, patriotic songs and speeches, lots of banners and grilled meat stalls: if you crave attending a mass event after the end of the Covid-19 travel restrictions, consider visiting Petrova Niva in the third we

veleka river
DISCOVERING STRANDZHA'S COAST
The Strandzha mountains coast, roughly everything along the Black Sea south of Burgas, is about 100 km long as the crow flies. Yet it is very varied.

soviet airplane bulgaria
BULGARIA'S COLD WAR PLANES
In the spring of 2022, Bulgarian military aircraft used during the Cold War suddenly became hot news. Should Bulgaria offer its old Soviet MiG- 29s to Ukraine, or shouldn't it?

centre of bulgaria
WHAT IS KARLOVO?
Great changes often spread from inconspicuous places, and Karlovo is a case in point.

snake island bulgaria
FEW SNAKES AND NO RUSSIANS
"Russian warship, go f*ck yourself!" When the Ukrainian defenders of Black Sea's Snake Island shouted out to the outnumbering Russian forces at the beginning of Putin's "special military operation," they hardly anticipated that they would coin a catchphrase

Sacred hunt, a mural at Aleksandrovo Tomb
THRACIAN BULGARIA
There are places in the world where you can get to know long-vanished nations and their former glory: Egypt, China, Greece... Bulgaria also makes it on this list.

st chistopher zlatolist
THE MYSTIC POWER OF ZLATOLIST
Born in 1883 near Serres, which was then in the Ottoman Empire and today is in Greece, Stoyna Dimitrova was seven years old when she experienced something extraordinary.